The genus Australopithecines were our first hominid ancestors. We know this because they were the first hominid genus to be bipedal, or you could say "walk on two legs". We know this because of their hip structure. Then some branched off into new species of Australopithecus -Australopithecus Afarensis, Australopithecus Africanus, Australopithecus Ramidus and Ardipithecus. The genus Australopithecus evolved 4.4 million years ago in South Africa. Then they spread around the continent of Africa. Then one species of Australopithecus started to evolve into a new lineage of apes.
Homo is the genus that derives from Australopithecus Africanus. The genus Homo became a lineage between 2.5 to 2.8 million years ago somewhere in east Africa near the horn of Africa. The first species in the genus Homo was Homo Habilis which means handy man in Latin there called that because they were the first species to use stone tools at the earliest 2.4 million years ago. Homo Habilis first appeared 2.8 million years ago. The species improved the human family by making stone tools and having large territory in Africa. Then Homo Erectus evolved 2 million years ago from Homo Habilis. Homo Erectus was very successful; they were the first human species to migrate out of Africa.
Their territory ranged from some parts of southern Europe to eastern China and almost all parts of Africa. Homo Erectus might have been the first recorded human species to use fire at 1.4 million years ago. I know this because scientists have found 1.4 million year old clayshards in Kenya heated to a temperature of 700 degrees fahrenheit. In this time frame Homo Habilis was extinct 1.4 million years ago. At this time there were 2 human species: Homo Erectus and Homo Ergaster which appeared about the same time as Homo Erectus.
Then in Europe Homo Antecessor appeared in western Europe 1.2 million years ago they are descended from Homo erectus. Homo Antecessor died out 800,000 years ago because they were not smart. There is a site in Germany of a javelin bent, it must have been used for stabbing at an animal to hunt it down.
Then Homo Heidelbergensis popped up in Germany and spread to parts of Africa. They appeared in Northern Europe 600,000 years ago. These intelligent men migrated to a lot of Eurasia and some stayed in Germany when they evolved into Neanderthals.
Neanderthals had big territory in southern Europe and maybe parts of east Asia. Neanderthals first appeared in Africa then went into Europe 250,000 years ago then migrated to parts of China. By this time Homo Sapiens -also known as modern humans. It is a mystery what species of humans we evolved from but some scientists think we might have evolved from a Homo Erectus tribe 350,000 years ago. Homo Sapiens had violent clashes with a lot of human species, which drove them to extinction then finally we had some violent clashes with Neanderthals but also some good interactoins with them. Homo Sapiens interbred with Neanderthals and some scientists say they went extinct because they interbred and outnumbered and some other scientists say it was because of brutal clashes. I think it is both because I have 2% neanderthal and east Asians and Europeans have some Neanderthal genes in them.
Thank you guys for reading this nonfiction essay about human evolution. I got this information from an actual scientist YouTube channel by North02 . I have my own perspective on human evolution: Humans will continue to evolve, everything keeps evolving, it never stops. Adapting means the response to the environment.